Kurdish Studies

ISSN: 2051-4883 | e-ISSN: 2051-4891
Email: editor@kurdishstudies.net

Insights into Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Prevalence and Risk Factors Among Women - A Cross-Sectional Study

Sudhair Abbas Bangash
Ushna Gul
Rida Fatima Saeed
Nadia Shabnam
Aayesha Riaz
Salma Riaz
Shaista Aslam
Nabiha Naeem
Khursheed Anwar
Qaiser Akram
Keywords: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Prevalence, Risk Factors, Obstetric Outcomes.


Background: Globally, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), is becoming more and more of an issue for expectant mothers and their children.

Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and identify the risk factors associated with GDM among pregnant women

Methodology: The cross-sectional research was out between January–December 2023 at the Hayatabad Medical Complex in Peshawar. In order to gather data, comprehensive questionnaires including demographics, obstetric and medical history, family history of diabetes, and lifestyle variables were given out during normal prenatal appointments. To find independent determinants of GDM, statistical analysis was performed using multivariate logistic regression, prevalence calculation, bivariate analysis, and descriptive statistics.

Results: The results section shows that the prevalence of GDM is 14.17%. There are significant correlations between GDM and factors like obesity (29.4% vs. 9.7%, p < 0.001), sedentary lifestyle (36.8% vs. 21.8%, p = 0.007), advanced maternal age (26.5% vs. 14.6%, p = 0.019), and poor diet (41.2% vs. 26.7%, p = 0.013). Higher rates of preterm birth (23.53% vs. 9.7%, p = 0.002), macrosomia (19.12% vs. 7.3%, p < 0.001), newborn hypoglycemia (13.24% vs. 4.9%, p < 0.001), and respiratory distress syndrome (8.82% vs. 2.4%, p < 0.001) were among the unfavorable outcomes. The independent predictors of GDM that were verified by multivariate analysis were an advanced maternal age (Adjusted OR: 1.98, p = 0.019), obesity (Adjusted OR: 3.18, p < 0.001), diabetes (Adjusted OR: 2.36, p = 0.001), and sedentary lifestyle (Adjusted OR: 1.75, p = 0.035).

Conclusion: This research emphasizes how crucial it is to address modifiable risk factors in order to lessen the negative effects of GDM on the health of expectant mothers and newborns.

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