Kurdish Studies

ISSN: 2051-4883 | e-ISSN: 2051-4891
Email: editor@kurdishstudies.net

The Validity and Reliability of Arabic Version of the Psychological Defeat Scale

Faisal Saeed Aldawsari
Special Education Department, College of Education, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia
Mohamed Mahmoud El-Gammal
Department of Islamic studies, College of Islamic Studies, Hamad Bin Khalifa University
Mohamed Sayed Abdellatif
Department of Educational Sciences, College of Education, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia/ Department of Educational Psychology, College of Education in Assiut, Al-Azhar University, EGYPT
Sherif Ahmed Ibrahim
Department of Educational Technology, College of Education, University of Bisha, Bisha 61922, Saudi Arabia,
Mashael Nasser Ayed Al-Dosari
Department of Educational Sciences, College of Education, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia
Keywords: Psychometric properties; psychological defeat; university students.


The psychological defeat represents a complex and debilitating emotional and mental state that often emerges as a response to prolonged adversity or traumatic experiences. It leads individuals to grapple with profound feelings of hopelessness and helplessness. This present study is primarily focused on the development and validation of a psychometric instrument designed to assess psychological defeat among university students. Employing a descriptive research approach, the scale was administered to a sample comprising 412 students enrolled at Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University. Data analysis encompassed several statistical techniques, including Exploratory Factor Analysis, Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Cronbach's alpha coefficient, Composite Reliability (CR), and Pearson's correlation coefficient. The outcomes of the statistical analysis within this research underscore the scale's robust validity for gauging psychological defeat within the research sample. Factor analysis revealed the existence of four distinct dimensions within psychological defeat: psychological debility, self-contempt, spiritual emptiness, and self-deficit. Consequently, the Psychological Defeat Scale exhibits a noteworthy level of internal consistency, construct validity, and test-retest reliability, thereby affirming its utility and credibility for research applications.

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