Kurdish Studies

ISSN: 2051-4883 | e-ISSN: 2051-4891
Email: editor@kurdishstudies.net

Modeling the Causal Relations between Mind Wandering, Digital Readiness and Academic Engagement in E-Learning among University Students

Yousef Mohamed Ahmed Shalaby
Associate Professor of Educational Psychology King Khalid University
Wessam Hamdy El-Kasaby
Associate Professor of Educational Psychology King Khalid University
Keywords: Mind Wandering, Digital Readiness, Academic Engagement, E-Learning, Structural Equation Modeling.


This study modeled causal relations between mind wandering, digital readiness, and academic engagement among 298 university students in e-learning contexts. Quantitative analysis uncovered a high level of mind wandering and uneven digital readiness among participants. Academic engagement was moderately developed across behavioral, emotional, and cognitive domains. Structural equation modeling validated a proposed model of causal mechanisms linking these factors based on cognitive load, connectivism, and flow theories. Mind wandering demonstrated direct negative effects on engagement by disrupting cognitive focus and meta-awareness. Poor digital readiness also dampened engagement by overloading mind capacities and inhibiting access to online learning communities. The model provides a framework for investigating predictors of mind wandering and digital readiness and examining moderators of their impacts on engagement. Findings inform potential interventions to strengthen engagement and performance in e-learning through mindfulness training, digital skills development, and promoting social connections, interest, and cognitive absorption. This research elucidates the intersection of psychological dispositions, technological competencies, and embeddedness in digital learning and charts future inquiry directions.

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