Kurdish Studies

ISSN: 2051-4883 | e-ISSN: 2051-4891

Analysis of Vegetation Cover Change in Babil Governorate Using Spectral Indicators (Ndvi Ndmi)

Zainab Sabah Shnaishel
Aliraqia University, College of Arts, Department of Geography
Rana Faeq Hassan Ali
Aliraqia University, College of Arts, Department of Geography
Keywords: Vegetation, Babil, GIS, NDWI. Rainfall, Desertification..


The study aimed to uncover environmental deterioration in Babil Governorate and determine the extent of the extent of desertification in the region, through the optimal use of geographic technologies like GIS (geographic information systems and remote sensing) that show us the values and percentages of degraded areas in the region.The area of the study area was (6467 km2), as the study relied on natural and human data for the region. The study included satellite digital processors, and the application of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) Normalized Difference Mosture Index (NDWI) approach was relied upon.The post-classification comparison method is used to distinguish two types, namely the density of vegetation cover and the water content of the soil (moisture).In order to produce digital maps of the vegetation cover for the period (2013-2022) for the region, by using two satellite images of Babil Governorate that were captured by the Landsat Oil 8 satellite, the spectral bands (bands) were distinguished as a basic step in the research work and then the indicators were applied, as the results showed a wide In the areas of desertification and the lack of water content in the region, this is done by calculating the difference in areas of two images taken in different periods from 2013 to 2023, as the area of cultivated land in 2013 reached (4352) km2, representing 67% of the area of the total area, while the cultivated land reached 3631 km2 in 2023, representing 55.8% , while the aridity index indicated a decline in wetlands, as their percentage reached 70.1% in 2013, while their percentage reached 45.1% in 2023. This change occurred within a short period of time, 10 years, and this indicates environmental deterioration. The area of barren lands expanded at the expense of cultivated lands.

SCImago Journal & Country Rank


Kurdish StudiesKurdsmigrationTurkeyKurdishKurdistangenderSyriaimmigrationIraqIraqi KurdistanrefugeesmediadiasporaMigrationfamilyAlevismRojavaYezidisautonomyUnited StatesKurdish studiestransnational migrationIranstereotypesminoritiesAlevisactivismEuropesovereigntyareal linguisticsPKKIndiaBalkans