Constructing National Identity: A Historical Discourse Analysis Of Urdu, Punjabi And English In Pakistan


  • Dr. Tariq Mahmood Hashmi
  • Dr Nazia Perveen
  • Dr. Fayyaz Hussain
  • Dr Shazia Razzaq
  • Muhammad Asim Khan
  • Tanzeela Arshaad
  • Shehr Yar



language policy, national identity, Pakistan, Urdu, Punjabi, English, bilingual education, historical discourse analysis, social identity theory, colonial legacy, power dynamics, social mobility


Pakistani national identity formation, historical narratives, and language policy are all explored in this research. The purpose of this study is to get a better understanding of the factors that influence the continuing discussion over Urdu, Punjabi and English in Pakistan's language policy, including power dynamics in the past, changing narratives, and educational reality. Used primary materials such as newspapers, periodicals, and speeches given by politicians, this qualitative research examines a variety of topics. The changing narratives surrounding Pakistan's language policy traced back via the use of Historical Discourse Analysis (HDA) by Wodak (2004) and Fairclough (2003). The theory of social identity (SIT) by Tajfel and Turner's (1986) offers a framework for thinking about how language reveals power structures and social identities. Historical records, political speeches, and media texts are all sources that may benefit from content analysis. The research shows that several elements are constantly influencing the language policy of Pakistan. Contemporary discussions are still shaped by the effects of colonialism. Advocates of bilingual education point to both the practical benefits of English in today's globalized world and the significance of Urdu in strengthening national identity. Regional languages like Punjabi are increasingly valued in national identity narratives. Magazines like Pakistania highlight Pakistan's diverse linguistic tapestry. This change recognizes the limits of using Urdu alone to depict the nation's rich culture. But there are still obstacles to overcome, such as the fact that not everyone in Pakistan has the same opportunities to get a good education and that Urdu and English aren't the only languages spoken in Pakistan.  The intricate web of connections between Pakistan's language policy and its citizens' sense of national identity is better understood thanks to this study. The research sheds light on power dynamics throughout history and the problems that persist now, which may inform policy choices on how to best prepare individuals for a globalized society and increase social inclusion.

Author Biographies

Dr. Tariq Mahmood Hashmi

Associate Professor, Department of Urdu, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Dr Nazia Perveen

Assistant Professor, Department of Urdu, University of Education Lahore, Faisalabad Campus, Pakistan.

Dr. Fayyaz Hussain

Assistant Professor, Department of Punjabi, Government College University Faisalabad.

Dr Shazia Razzaq

Assistant Professor, Department of Urdu, Lahore College for Women University Lahore, Pakistan.

Muhammad Asim Khan

M.Phil Scholar, Department of Applied Linguistics, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Tanzeela Arshaad

M.Phil Scholar, Department of Pakistan studies, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Shehr Yar

Bs (Hons) Public Policy, Department of Political science, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan




How to Cite

Dr. Tariq Mahmood Hashmi, Dr Nazia Perveen, Dr. Fayyaz Hussain, Dr Shazia Razzaq, Muhammad Asim Khan, Tanzeela Arshaad, & Shehr Yar. (2024). Constructing National Identity: A Historical Discourse Analysis Of Urdu, Punjabi And English In Pakistan. Kurdish Studies, 12(2), 6890–6900.

Most read articles by the same author(s)