Evolution of Competitiveness and Sustainability in Peru Over Two Decades Since the National Agreement


  • Miluska Odely Rodríguez-Saavedra Universidad Nacional de San Agustín de Arequipa, Arequipa, Peru,
  • Augusto Cahuapaza-Morales Jorge Basadre Grohmann National University, Tacna, Peru,
  • Antony Paul Espiritu-Martinez National Autonomous High Andean University of Tarma, Junin, Peru,
  • Jorge Luis Hilario-Rivas National University of Ucayali, Ucayali, Peru,
  • Luis Gonzalo Barrera-Benavides Technological University of Peru, Arequipa, Peru,
  • Jorge Miguel Chávez-Díaz Peruvian University of Applied Sciences, Lima, Peru,
  • Rafael Romero-Carazas National University of Moquegua, Moquegua, Peru


Public policies, sustainable development, National Agreement.


This comprehensive analysis focuses on evaluating the impact and effectiveness of the policies established in the National Agreement in the context of Peru's competitiveness and sustainable development. With special attention to the policies implemented, it seeks to highlight progress and setbacks in these aspects over the twenty-two years since the adoption of the National Agreement. In methodological terms, a basic approach is used with a descriptive-transversal non-experimental design, integrating elements of mixed analysis. The results obtained reveal a significant GDP growth of 150.1% until 2023, despite a 10.9% contraction in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Economic resilience is highlighted, evidenced by a rapid recovery in subsequent years. In addition, a 79.2% increase in socio-environmental conflicts overseen by the Ombudsman's Office between 2018 and 2022 is identified, pointing to persistent challenges in this area. The conclusions highlight the duality of economic progress and critical challenges in the country, focusing on the importance of strengthening economic resilience strategies and assessing the sustainability of participation in international trade, aligned with the various policies of the National Agreement.




How to Cite

Miluska Odely Rodríguez-Saavedra, Augusto Cahuapaza-Morales, Antony Paul Espiritu-Martinez, Jorge Luis Hilario-Rivas, Luis Gonzalo Barrera-Benavides, Jorge Miguel Chávez-Díaz, & Rafael Romero-Carazas. (2024). Evolution of Competitiveness and Sustainability in Peru Over Two Decades Since the National Agreement. Kurdish Studies, 12(2), 1874–1888. Retrieved from https://kurdishstudies.net/menu-script/index.php/KS/article/view/2199