The most Famous Chemistry Scientists in the Islamic East During the Third and Fourth Centuries of the Islamic Hijri Calendar (AH)


  • Dr. Huda Ali Haider Aliraqia University, College of Arts, Iraq
  • Dr. Nubras Turki Hadi Aliraqia University, College of Arts, Iraq,


Chemistry, Arabs, Science


Chemistry refers to the scientific study of the properties, composition, and structure of matter, as well as the changes that occur in the structure and composition of matter, and the associated energy changes.Chemistry has become a legitimate science thanks to the efforts of the Arabs, their scientific inclination, and their inclination towards research, scrutiny, and experimentation.It was a common practice among Arabs to observe, examine, and utilize mathematical sciences, employing methods of measurement and acquiring new information. They did not rely solely on observation in mechanics, instruments, and optics. Instead, they resorted to experimentation, observation, examination, and inference using the tools and machines available to them. This approach paved the way for the inception of chemistry and led them to invent filtration, distillation, and lifting weights. Additionally, it prompted them to utilize balance in chemistry, distinguishing them from others.Arabs were the pioneers in establishing the practical science of chemistry and uncovering some of its significant components, such as sulfuric acid, nitric acid, and alcohol. They were the first to employ these substances in medical treatments, pioneering the publication of pharmaceutical compositions and mineral preparations. The Arabs made significant contributions to chemistry that led Westerners to consider it an Arab science.Arabs had a notable influence on chemistry by categorizing known chemical substances into four basic divisions during their time: mineral substances, plant substances, animal substances, and derived substances.Arabs utilized this science in medicine, industries, drug manufacturing, pharmaceutical composition, and mineral purification.It can be said that Arabs had a significant impact in shaping a chemical school that left a profound influence in the West. This would not have been possible without the transformative efforts of Jabir ibn Hayyan and similar figures, who revolutionized the field by establishing chemistry based on experimentation, observation, and inference.




How to Cite

Dr. Huda Ali Haider, & Dr. Nubras Turki Hadi. (2024). The most Famous Chemistry Scientists in the Islamic East During the Third and Fourth Centuries of the Islamic Hijri Calendar (AH). Kurdish Studies, 12(2), 1771–1785. Retrieved from