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Kurdish fiction: From writing as resistance to aestheticised commitment

Kaveh Ghobadi

Abstract

The establishment of modern Iran in 1925 accelerated a centralisation policy, which resulted in the oppression of Iran’s national and cultural diversity. Under such unfavourable conditions, Kurdish fiction had a stuttering start with only three works since the publication of the first Kurdish novel in 1961 up until 1991, when the number of Kurdish fictional works produced in Iran began to increase steadily. This article addresses the question of commitment and aesthetics in Kurdish prose fiction by examining a short story collection and three novels published between 1961 and 2002. Whereas the earlier Kurdish writers primarily viewed fiction as a medium for cultural preservation and national liberation, around the turn of the 20th century a generation of Kurdish writers appeared who were as equally concerned with aesthetics as with politics.

ABSTRACT IN KURMANJI

Çîroka kurdî: Ji nivîsîna berxwedanê bo pabendiyeke estetîk

Avakirina Îrana modern li sala 1925an lez da siyaseta navendîkirinê, ku bû sebebê fetisandina cihêrengiya neteweyî û çandî ya Îranê. Li jêr şertên wisa xerab, destpêka çîrok û romanên kurdî gelek giran bû û bi tenê sê berhem çap bûn di navbera 1961 û 1991ê, dema ku berhemên edebî yên kurdî li Îranê her ku çû zêdetir bûn. Ev gotar berê xwe dide pirsa pabendiya siyasî/îdeolojîk û estetîkê di edebiyata kurdî bi rêya tehlîla berhemeke kurteçîrokan û sê romanên di navbera 1961 û 2003 de çap bûyî. Di demekê de ku nivîskarên kurd yên pêşiyê edebiyat wek amrazeke parastina çandî û azadiya neteweyî didîtin, li werçerxa sedsala 20an nifşekî nivîskarên kurd derhatin ku bi qasî siyasetê xwedanê xem û endîşeyên estetîk jî bûn.

ABSTRACT IN SORANI

Çîrokî kurdî: Le nûsînî berengarîyewe bo pabendbûnî cuwanînasî

Damezrandinî dewlletî modêrnî Êran le 1925da siyasetî nawedindêtî xêratir kird. Emeş serkutkirdinî freyîy keltûrî û neteweyîy Êranî lêkewtewe. Le sayey em barûdoxe nalebareda, çîrokî kurdî seretayekî piçirr piçirrî hebû, le billawkirdinewey yekem romanî kurdî le sallî 1961 ta sallî 1991 tenha sê berhem billaw kirawetewe û le 1991 berhemî çîrokî kurdî le Êran destî be ziyadbûnî berdewam kird. Em babete kar leser pirsî pabendbûn û cuwaninasî le çîrokî kurdîda dekat le rêgay hellsengandinî koberhemêkî kurteçîrok û sê roman ke le nêwan sallanî 1961 ta 2002da billaw kirawnetewe. Le katêkda cîlî pêşûy nûseranî Kurd be giştî çîrok nûsînyan wek amrazêk bo parastinî keltûr û rizgarîy nîştimanî debînî, le serûbendî hatinî sedey bîstemda neweyek le nûserî kurd peydabûn ke be heman radey siyaset bayexyan be cuwanînasîş deda.

ABSTRACT IN ZAZAKI

Fîksîyonê kurdkî: Nuştişê xoverrodayoxkî ra ver bi wezîfeya estetîzekerdîyeAwankerdişê Îranê modernî yê serra 1925î bî sebebê sîyasetê merkezîkerdişî. Semedê nê sîyasetê merkezî ra zafrenginîya Îranî ya neteweyî û kulturî ameye bindestkerdene. Binê şertanê winasîyanê bêavantajan de, destpêkê fîksîyonê kurdkî giran bî: mabênê serra 1961î, wexto ke romanê kurdkî yo verên weşanîyabî, û serra 1991î, wexto ke Îran de weşanê eseranê fîksîyonî yê kurdkî hêdî-hêdî aver şîyêne, tena hîrê eserî weşanîyabîyî. Na meqale persê wezîfedarî û estetîkî yê fîksîyonê kurdkî ser o vindena. Seba naye koleksîyonêkê hîkayeyan û hîrê romanê ke mabênê 1961 û 2002î de weşanîyayî, analîz benê. Nuştoxanê kurdkî yê verênan fîksîyon heme çîyan ra ver sey wasîtaya muhafezekerdişê kulturî û xelasa neteweyîye dîyêne. Labelê serê seserra 20. de neslê nuştoxanê kurdkî yo newe vejîya meydan ke înan giranîya xo hem dayêne sîyasetî hem kî estetîkî ser.

Keywords

National liberation; modernism; aesthetics; Kurdish identity; Iranian Kurdistan

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