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Crossborder Kurdish Solidarity: An Endangered Aspect of Kurdishness

Allan Hassaniyan

Abstract

Cross-border kinship has been a particular hallmark of Kurdish identity and an important source of solidarity between Kurds of different regions within Kurdistan. However, this article argues that the values of cross-border Kurdish solidarity have been violated in the past, due to the collaboration of elements of the Kurdish movement with the Turkish, Iranian, Iraqi and Syrian states. Misconducted cross-border interaction has led to movement fragmentation, decline or/and termination, and to internecine violence between different sections of the Kurdish movement. This paper, reflecting on the interaction between the Iranian and Iraqi Kurdish movements from the 1960s to the 1990s, argues that the Iranian Kurdish movement has been disadvantaged and has faced multifaceted challenges and difficulties partially owing to this interaction.

ABSTRACT IN KURMANJI

Hevgirtina wêdeyî sînoran: Aliyekî lawaz ê Kurdayetiyê

Xizmîniya di navber û wêdeyî sînoran nî$aneyeke taybet a nasnameya kurdî ye ku bûye çavkaniyeke girîng a hevgirtinê di navbera kurdên ji herêmên cuda yên Kurdistanê. Ligel vê, ev gotar diyar dike ku di raboriyê de nirxên vê hevgirtina kurdan ya wêdeyî sînoran hatine pêpestkirin, bi taybetî ji ber hevkariya hindek pêkhateyên bizava neteweyî ya kurdî ligel dewletên Tirk, Îran, Iraq, û Sûriyeyê. Danûstandina wêdeyî sînoran ya xerab hatî rêvebirin bûye sebebê parçebûn, pa$ketin an/û têkçûnê, û tundûtîjiya kujende di navbera pêkhateyên cuda yên bizava kurdî de. Ev gotar berê xwe dide danûstandina di navbera bizavên kurdî yên Îranî û Iraqî yên ji 1960an heta 1990an, û diyar dike ku bizavan kurdî ya Îranî di rew$eke neguncaw de bûye û ketiye ber gelek dijwariyan ku be$ek jê ji ber vê danûstandinê bûne.

ABSTRACT IN SORANI

Sollîdarêtî kurdî le piştî sinûrekanewe: Xeter leser rehendî kurdbûn

Xizmayetî kurdan le herdû dîwî sinûrekanewe yekêke le xale cewherîyekanî nasnamey kurd û serçaweyekî giringî sollîdarêtîye lenêw kurdanî herême ciyawazekanî Kurdistanda. Bellam, em babete gengeşey ewe deka ke ew xizmayetîye le rabirdûda behoy hawkarîy bizûtnewe siyasîyekanî kurd legell dewlletanî Turkiya, Suriya, Êraq û Êranda pêşêl krawe. Xirap bekarhênanî peywendîyekanî herdû dîwî sinûr bote hoy pertbûn, pûkanewe yaxud kotayî hatinî peywendîyekan.  Em babete tîşk dexate ser peywendîyekanî bizûtnewekanî kurdayetî le  Êraq û Êran le 1960ekanewe ta 1990ekan. Bangeşey ewe dekat ke bizûtnewekanî kurd le Êran zereryan lew peywendîyane pê geyîşituwe û rûberûy allingarîy corawcor bûnetewe behoy ew peywendîyanewe.

ABSTRACT IN ZAZAKI

Piştgirîya kurdan a mîyansînorkîye: yew parçeyê kurdbîyayîşî binê tehluke de yo

Xisimîya mîyansînorkîye taybetmendîya girînge ya nasnameyê kurdan û seba piştgirîya mabênê kurdanê herêmanê Kurdîstanî yê cîya-cîyayan de çimeyêko muhîm bîyêne. Labelê na meqale de munaqeşe beno ke demo vîyarte de semedê hemkarîya tayê elementanê tevgerê kurdan bi dewletanê Tirkîya, Îran, Îraq û Sûrîye ra, erjê na piştgirîya kurdan a mîyansînorkîye ameyî îxlalkerdene. Seba ke têkilîyê mîyanê sînoran xelet îdare bîyî, tevger bî parçe-parçe, bî kêmî û/yan zî ame peynîye û bî sebebê şidetê mabênê beşanê tevgerê kurdan ê cîya-cîyayan. No nuşte têkilîyanê mabênê tevgeranê kurdan ê Îran û Îraqî yê serranê 1960an û 1990an ser o vindeno. Tede munaqeşe beno ke tevgerê kurdanê Îranî semedê nê têkilîyan ra kewto dezavantaj û raştê tewir bi tewir zorî û zehmetîyan ameyo.

Keywords

crossborder interaction; solidarity; Kurdistan; Iranian Kurds; Iraqi Kurds; Kurdish Movement

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