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Kurdish Responses to Imperial Decline: The Kurdish Movement and the End of Ottoman Rule in the Balkans (1878 to 1913)

Djene Rhys Bajalan

Abstract

Focusing on the period between 1878 and 1913, this paper seeks to add to the growing literature highlighting the complexities of identity in the late Ottoman period through an examination of the attitudes of Kurdish political activists towards the specific question of the dissolution of Ottoman rule on the Balkan Peninsula. More precisely, it will be argued that, although it is impossible to identify a single Kurdish response to Ottoman troubles in the Balkans, a survey of contemporaneous publications indicates that many leading Kurdish public figures of the period, including those active within the nascent Kurdish movement, regarded Ottoman imperial collapse as a profoundly negative political development.

ABSTRACT IN KURMANJI

Bersivên kurdan bo paşketina împeretoriyê: Tevgera kurdî û dawiya desthilata Osmanî li Balkanan (1878-1913)

Ev gotar berê xwe dide nivîsînên her zêdetir ên li ser tevliheviya nasnameyê di serdema dawî ya Osmaniyan de bi rêya tehlîlkirina helwêstên çalakvanên siyasî yên kurd li hember pirsa hilweşîna desthilata Osmanî li Balkanan, bi taybetî di qonaxa ji 1878 heta 1913an. Bi gotineke deqîqtir, gotar wê hizrê dide pêş ku herçend xeyrî mumkîn e ku yek bersiveke kurdan ya bi tenê bê destnîşankirin ji bo kêşeyên Osmaniyan li herêma Balkanan, nirxandineke weşanên hevçerx diyar dike ku gelek kesayetên naskirî yên kurd, ewên ku di tevgera nûzayî ya kurdî de çalak bûn jî di nav de, hilweşîna împeretoriya Osmanî wek geşedaneke gelek negatîv didîtin.   

ABSTRACT IN SORANI

Bersivî Kurd bo pukanewey împirator: Cullanewey Kurdî û kotayî ḧukimrranîy 'Usmanî le Balkan (1878-1913)

Be terkîz kirdine ser mawey nêwan 1878 ta 1913, em babete hewll dedat îzafeyek bixate ser ew edebiyate rû le ziyadbuwey ke tîşk dexate ser allozîy şunas le kota qonaẍî 'Usmanîda le rêgey pişkinînî hellwêstî çalakwane siyasîye kurdîyekan le hember pirsêkî diyarîkiraw ke ewîş hellweşandinewey ḧukmî 'Usmanîyekan le durgey Ballkane. Wirdtir billêyn, argumêntî ewe dekirêt ke herçende destnîşankirdinî yek bersivî Kurdî derheq be kêşekanî 'Usmanîyekan le Balkan esteme, rûmallkirdinî billawkirawekanî ew serdeme amajey ewe dedat ke zorêk le kesayetîye giştîye diyarekanî kurdî ew kat, be waneşewe ke lenaw bizûtnewe kurdîye sawakeda çalak bûn, heresî împiratorîyetî 'Usmanîyan be allugorrêkî siyasîy nerênîy qull dadena.

ABSTRACT IN ZAZAKI

Rijîyayîşê Împeratorîye rê cewabê kurdan: Balkanan de peynîya hukmê Osmanîyan de tevgerê kurdan (1878 – 1913)

Bi giranîya serranê mabênê 1878 û 1913î, na meqale kena ke dewrê Osmanîyan ê peyênî de edebîyato ke derheqê kompleksîteyanê nasnameyan ê Balkanan de aver şono, ey ser o kemerêke rono. Tede derheqê persê wedarîyayîşêhukmê Osmanîyan ê nêmgirawa Balkanî de qenaetê çalakîkeranê sîyasetmedaranê kurdan ê wextî analîz benê. Hîna biteferuat, îdîa beno ke herçiqas ke mumkîn nîyo ke derheqê problemanê Osmanîyan ê Balkanî de tena yew cewabê kurdan bêro teşxîskerdene, ancîya cigêrayîşê weşanê ê demî musneno ke xeylê şexsîyetanê kurdan ê namdaran yê ê wextî, çalakîkerê tevgerê neteweperwerîya kurdan ya tezîye zî tede, parçebîyayîşê Împeratorîya Osmanîyan sey averşîyayîşêko sîyasîyo xirabin dîyêne.

Keywords

Kurds, Ottoman Empire, Balkans, Empire, Nationalism

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